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One in two young Australians experienced stressors during pandemic, data shows | Health

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Young people have experienced more stressors than older Australians throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, according to new data.

On Friday, the Australian Bureau of Statistics released new figures from its National Health Survey, on stressors, diet and breastfeeding. The survey collected information from 11,000 households around the country between August 2020 and June 2021.

Nearly half (48.3%) of people aged 18 to 24 experienced one or more stressors during this period, which included factors such as mental ill health, job loss or being unable to get a job. In comparison, 34.8% of people aged 65 and older experienced one or more stressors.

The findings are in keeping with previous research showing young people experienced higher rates of psychological distress and educational disruption throughout the pandemic.

Separately, Australians are not eating enough fruit and vegetables, with only 6.1% of over-18s meeting the recommended daily intake.

The ABS emphasised that because the survey was conducted online during the pandemic, the collected data can only be considered as a snapshot in time. “Comparisons to previous health data over time are not possible,” it said.

Because follow-ups weren’t able to be done in person, the response rate was lower for the latest survey, which might affect how accurately some statistics represent the broader population.

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Stressors

Across the general adult population, 43.7% of people experienced one or more stressors. The most commonly reported were mental ill health (12.8%), death of a family member or close friend (12.4%) and serious illness (11.3%).

Women (45%) were more likely than men (42.2%) to experience at least one stressor.

Percentage of people who experienced stressors in the previous 12 months, by age group

People aged 18 to 24 were more likely to report mental ill health (19.2%), being unable to get a job (15.7%) and job loss (13%) as a stressor, while one in seven people aged 65 and over cited serious illness as a stressor.

Of people who experienced high or very high psychological distress, seven in 10 reported experiencing at least one stressor.

Percentage experiencing each type of stressor, by age group

Diet

Australians are not eating enough fruit and vegetables – in 2020–21, only 6.1% of adults and 8.5% children ate the recommended amount of both.

While 44.8% of those over 18 chomped on the recommended two or more serves of fruit daily, only 8.7% met the suggested vegetable intake (five to six serves, depending on age and sex).

Adult women were more likely to meet the recommendations than men; 9% of women met both recommendations, while men lagged at 2.9%.

Breastfeeding

The vast majority of Australian children (95.9%) aged zero to three received some breast milk. The ABS figures show just over one in three children (35.4%) were exclusively breastfed to six months, which is recommended by national infant feeding guidelines.

Overseas, exclusive breastfeeding rates reportedly dropped during the pandemic in countries including the US and Italy, with some mothers citing difficulties in accessing health support. Misleading claims that breastfeeding was unsafe due to Covid may also have been a factor.

Percentage of children less than three years old that were exclusively breastfed for 2, 4 and 6 months

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Solar storms may cause up to 5500 heart-related deaths in a given year

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In an approximate 11-year cycle, the sun blasts out charged particles and magnetised plasma that can distort Earth’s magnetic field, which may disrupt our body clock and ultimately affect our heart



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17 June 2022

A solar storm

Jurik Peter/Shutterstock

Solar storms that disrupt Earth’s magnetic field may cause up to 5500 heart-related deaths in the US in a given year.

The sun goes through cycles of high and low activity that repeat approximately every 11 years. During periods of high activity, it blasts out charged particles and magnetised plasma that can distort Earth’s magnetic field.

These so-called solar storms can cause glitches in our power grids and bring down Earth-orbiting satellites. A handful of studies have also hinted that they increase the risk of …

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UK Covid infection rate rising, with more than a million cases in England | Coronavirus

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Coronavirus infections are rising in the UK, figures have revealed, with experts noting the increase is probably down to the more transmissible BA.4 and BA.5 Omicron variants.

The figures from the Office for National Statistics (ONS), based on swabs collected from randomly selected households, reveal that in the week ending 11 June an estimated one in 50 people in the community in England are thought to have had Covid – around 1.13 million people.

The figure is even higher, at one in 45, in both Wales and Northern Ireland, while it was highest in Scotland where, in the week ending 10 June, one in 30 people are thought to have been infected.

While the figures remain below the peak levels of infection seen earlier this year, when around one in 13 people in England had Covid, the findings are a rise on the previous week where one in 70 people in England were thought to be infected. Furthermore, the data reveals increases in all regions of England, except the north-east, and across all age groups.

Experts say that a key factor in the increase is probably the rise of the Covid variants of concern BA.4 and BA.5.

“Infections have increased across all four UK nations, driven by rising numbers of people infected with the BA.4 and BA.5 Omicron variants,” said Kara Steel, senior statistician for the Covid-19 Infection Survey.

While Steel said it remained too early to say if this was the start of another wave, others have warned it may already have begun, with increased mixing and travelling among other factors fuelling a rise in cases.

Among concerns scientists have raised are that BA.4, BA.5 and another variant on the rise, BA.2.12.1, replicate more efficiently in human lung cells than BA.2.

Prof Azra Ghani, an epidemiologist at Imperial College London, said the latest figures were not surprising, and might rise further.

“This increase in infection prevalence is likely due to the growth of the BA.4 and BA.5 Omicron subvariants, which as we have seen elsewhere in Europe, appear to be able to escape immunity generated from previous Omicron subvariants,” she said.

“It is therefore possible that we will continue to see some growth in infection prevalence in the coming weeks and consequently an increase in hospitalisations, although these subvariants do not currently appear to result in any significantly changed severity profile. This does however serve as a reminder that the Covid-19 pandemic is not over.”

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NHS to offer women in England drug that cuts recurrence of breast cancer | Breast cancer

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Thousands of women in England with breast cancer are to benefit from a new pill on the NHS which reduces the risk of the disease coming back.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice) has given the green light to abemaciclib, which cuts the chance of breast cancer returning after a patient has had surgery to remove a tumour.

Trials showed that patients who had the drug with hormone therapy had a more than 30% improved chance of their cancer not coming back after surgery, compared with hormone therapy alone.

“It’s fantastic thousands of women with this type of primary breast cancer will now have an additional treatment option available on the NHS to help further reduce the risk of the disease coming back,” said Delyth Morgan, the chief executive of charity Breast Cancer Now.

“The fear of breast cancer returning or spreading to other parts of their body and becoming incurable can cause considerable anxiety for so many women and their loved ones.

“New effective treatments such as abemaciclib, which can offer more women the chance to further reduce the risk of the disease recurring, are therefore extremely welcome and this is an important step change in the drug options available for this group of patients.”

The twice-a-day pill is suitable for women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, node-positive early breast cancer at high risk of recurrence who have had surgery. About 4,000 women will benefit initially, Nice said.

Helen Knight, the interim director of medicines evaluation at Nice, said the draft recommendation came less than a month after abemaciclib received its licence.

“The fact that we have been able to produce draft recommendations so quickly is testament to the success of our ambition to support patient access to clinically and cost effective treatments as early as possible,” said Knight. “Until now there have been no targeted treatments for people with this type of breast cancer.

“Abemaciclib with hormone therapy represents a significant improvement in how it is treated because being able to have a targeted treatment earlier after surgery will increase the chance of curing the disease and reduce the likelihood of developing incurable advanced disease.”

Abemaciclib works by targeting and inhibiting proteins in cancer cells which allow the cancer to divide and grow. It normally costs £2,950 for a packet of 56 150mg-tablets, but the manufacturer, Eli Lilly, has agreed an undisclosed discounted price for NHS England.

“Thanks in part to this latest deal struck by NHS England, NHS patients will be able to access another new targeted drug for a common and aggressive form of breast cancer,” said Prof Peter Johnson, the cancer director of NHS England.

“Abemaciclib, when used alongside a hormone therapy, offers a new, doubly targeted, treatment option, helping to increase the chances of beating the cancer for good, as well as meeting the NHS’s commitment to delivering improved cancer care under our long-term plan.”

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